There are four different kinds of packages that can be deployed to the enrolled devices using RealmJoin. It is recommended to use the most generic package types (craft and Chocolatey) if possible.
A craft package is just a container to transfer a batch or PowerShell script and related files to a device. Typical examples would be to set system or user-based settings in the registry, prepare files with user specific details like Outlook signatures or Office templates or to install drivers.
If PowerShell is used, the primary PowerShell script will be executed by calling:
powershell.exe -NoProfile -NonInteractive -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File "rj_install.ps1" arg1 arg2
If batch is used, the primary batch script will be executed by calling:
rj_install.cmd arg1 arg2
It is important to know that craft packages can run in user or system context, which can be specified during the package crafting process. Packages that are run in user mode are installed using the current user without administrative rights, even if the user is a local administrator on the device. Packages that are run in the system mode use the SYSTEM account on the device.
Chocolatey packages are created with the Chocolatey engine, which is using the NuGet infrastructure.
NuGet is an open-source package manager to enable developers to create, share and use libraries and packages within the .NET framework. NuGet provides the tools and services to create, host, and consume packages for the .NET framework. In addition to providing over 80.000 of publicly-available packages, NuGet allows developers to host packages privately in their favorite environment. The available hosting options are listed here NuGet packages hosting. Independent from the method, the NuGet hosted packages are made available to the consumers. For more detailed documentation of NuGet see the Microsoft NuGet documentation and https://www.nuget.org/ for available packages.
Chocolatey is a PowerShell execution engine that provides a single, unified interface for the management of software on Windows, utilizing the NuGet infrastructure. It might be compared to Linux' apt-get when it comes to (un-)installing software. With just a simple command line, software packages (publicly and privately hosted) can be installed with a high level of automation. RealmJoin uses Chocolatey to manage packages cleanly, silently and without any user intervention needed during the installation process.
Chocolatey packages contain all necessary files, e.g. installs, zip-files, scripts, etc., in one compiled package. During package installation, Chocolatey checks for dependencies (specified during package assignment in RealmJoin) and takes care of those, silently installing the needed packages. Chocolatey uses NuGet.Core to retrieve packages from the source. Before installing, Chocolatey takes snapshots, then runs automation scripts (PowerShell) if provided in the package.
In the next step, installers or executables are run. After the installation, Chocolatey prepares to uninstall information based on the pre-installation snapshots of registry and file/folder structure. In the case of Windows installer based software, it will be installed into the default path, mostly Program Files. Other packages are installed into ChocolateyInstall\Lib. The Chocolatey install command can be run with various parameters to e.g. suppress prompts, specify an installation directory. The full list of options can be found in the Chocolatey wiki.
Microsoft Application Virtualization (App-V) is an application virtualization solution from Microsoft. The App-V platform allows applications to be streamed to any client from a virtual application server. It is not needed to install the application locally, only the App-V client needs to be. App-V packages are the most exotic packages supported by RealmJoin. They are created as the difference between an out-of-the-box Windows 10 and an out-of-the-box Windows 10 with the software installed; therefore, contains all the differences in data, keys and file structure that result from the installation.
App-V sandboxes the execution environment, hosting a virtual file system, registry keys, services and so on, based on the App-V package. All the data specific to the software version is enclosed in the sandbox, resulting in no changes in the client's operation system. This also allows the use of different version of the same software parallel, even if they contain contradicting settings and key values. App-V might be considered as an intermediate step towards a virtual machine.
Generally spoken, App-V is the most sophisticated package type in RealmJoin, while highly customized, allowing most applications to be run.
Organic packages contain raw and unprocessed application setups. When handling those, RealmJoin is used as a transport vehicle to move the zipped container to a specified location. Depending on its payload, the installer then has to be manually started by the user (if user mode) or a remote administrator or field service.
The idea of organic packages is based on the experience that large infrastructures sometimes need specialized software only used by up to five users. Because lots of these applications are not identified as relevant to the overall company strategy but users often insist to have it, there was a need to offer a fast and cost-effective way to transport the setup in a controlled and auditable way to the client but to have its installation be a manual process.
With organic packages the organization knows exactly which software based on the detailed binaries and versions is in use on the client machines. If there is a security issue with one of these versions, all information is at hand. And if the user needs a new device, the special software packages are again available.
The used binaries are scanned for malware when transferred to the RealmJoin infrastructure. Because of their highly individualized nature and manual on-device management those packages are not maintained in a standard process, possible effects have to be addressed locally.